Real and Apparent Depth

Refraction leads to optical illusions.

When we look at something under water (or glass) it does not appear to be as deep as it really is. The 'real' depth is deeper than the 'apparent' depth.

The brain interprets the rays as having travelled in a straight line and therefore forms the image at the point the refracted rays 'appear to come from' NOT taking into account the fact that they have been bent as they leave the water.