Plotting a Graph
When plotting a line graph you should:

Use a sharp pencil and a 12" ruler.

Draw the whole graph in pencil first and then when you are happy with it label the axes in ink, add a title in ink and if you wish go over your points in ink or in a fine-tipped felt or gel-ink pen.

Do NOT go over the line in ink.

You must:

• choose an appropriate scale

(i) so that the graph fills most of the page. It doesn't matter which way round you position the graph paper
(ii) so that the divisions on the axes make it easy to plot the points accurately. Choose factors of 2 or 5 NOT 3 or 7!

• Give the graph a title that explains what the experiment was about, not simply 'A graph of temperature against time'.... that can be gleaned from the labels on the axes.... something like 'Melting ice' explains what you were doing as you recorded temperature and time readings.
• Label the axes with the physical quantity and the unit it was measured in. For example 'mass (kg)'
• Plot the points accurately and clearly. The best way to mark a point is to use a neat cross. If the line is then drawn so that it obliterates the point you can still see where it is.
• Draw an appropriate best fit line graph (NOT DOT-TO-DOT graphs) to fit the data, This may be a straight line graph or a curve. Your points are NOT perfect, they are subject to experimental error... your line can only give an indication of the trend that they follow. Your line should be smooth... no 'bumps' or 'wiggles'! A straight line should be drawn with a ruler, not freehand!

• If your graph gives you a straight line it shows that the two physical quantities you plotted are proportional. If the straight line goes through the origin the graph indicates that they are directly proportional.... i.e. if you double one quantity the other will double too.
• Any points that are well away from the line are called anomalies. They are probably due to experimental error. You should try to think of how these anomalies could have occurred or what you could do next time to avoid them happening.
• The line you have drawn can be used to make predictions. You can draw a line parallel to one of the axes and then direct it towards the other axis after it has reached your graph line of best fit. This can be done from any value on either axis and allow you to predict what a pair of values in the experiement would probably be. In an exam always pencil in these lines (draw them as dashed lines) to show the examiner how you reached your answer.

Finding the gradient of a straight line graph

• The equation of a straight line graph is

• c is the intercept and
• the gradient 'm' can be worked out from the change in Y (DY) values divided by the change in X (DX) values
.